2014年2月6日 星期四

Six Yogas of Naropa

Six Yogas of Naropa :超科學的 "身" "心" "靈" 平衡法
生命的終極大事 :  "身" "心" "靈" 的解脫與自在!!!                                                                

The Six Yogas of Nāropa (Tib. Narö chö drukna-ro'i-chos-drug), also called the six dharmas of Naropa.[1] Naro's six doctrines(Mandarin: Ming Xing Dao Liu Cheng Jiu Fa; rendered in English as: Wisdom Activities Path Six Methods of Accomplishment),[2]are a set of advanced Indo-Tibetan Buddhist tantric practices and a meditation sādhana compiled in and around the time of the Indian monk and mystic Nāropa (1016-1100 CE) and conveyed to his student Marpa the translator. The six yogas were intended in part to help in the attainment of siddhi and enlightenment in an accelerated manner.

Six Yogas or Six Dharmas?

Peter Alan Roberts notes that the proper terminology is "six Dharmas of Nāropa", not "six yogas of Nāropa":

"Tilopa briefly described these six practices in a short verse text entitled Instructions on the Six Dharmas. In Tibet these practices became known as the six Dharmas of Nāropa. In English they became known as the six yogas of Nāropa through their being first translated in 1935 by Evans-Wentz in Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines, even though Evans-Wentz only referred to them as "six doctrines," which is the equivalent of six Dharmas. The term yoga (sbyor ba) is never used for this set of practices in Tibetan, and they should not be confused with the Kālacaka tradition's group of six practices that are called yogas."[3]


 The six Dharmas are a synthesis or collection of the completion stage practices of several tantras. In the Kagyu traditions by which the six Dharmas were first brought to Tibet,abhiṣeka into at least one anuttarayoga tantra system (generally Cakrasaṃvara and/or Vajrayogini/Vajravarāhi) and practice of its utpatti-krama are the bases for practice of the six Dharmas; there is no particular empowerment for the six Dharmas themselves.

The six yogas

Though variously classified in up to ten yogas, the six yogas generally conform to the following conceptual list:
(Tibetan Wylie transliteration and Sanskrit in parentheses)
  • tummo (T: གཏུམ་མོ་ gtum-mo, S: caṇḍālī) — the yoga of inner heat (or mystic heat).[4]
  • gyulü (T: སྒྱུ་ལུས sgyu-lus, S: māyākāyā) — the yoga of the illusory body.[4]
  • ösel (T: འོད་གསལ་ 'od-gsal, S: prabhāsvara) — the yoga of the clear light or radiant light.[4]
These next three are considered the main practices of the completion stage (T: dzog-rim, S: saṃpanna-krama) in the anuttara yoga tantra.[5][6]
  • milam (T: རྨི་ལམ་ rmi-lam, S: svapnadarśana) — the yoga of the dream state.[4]
  • bardo (T: བར་དོ bar-do, S: antarābhava) — the yoga of the intermediate state. This is well-known through the Bardo ThödölBardo yoga as the yoga of liminality may include aspects of gyulu and milam and is therefore to be engaged as an extension of these disciplines.[4]
  • phowa (T: འཕོ་བ་ 'pho-ba, S: saṃkrānti) — the yoga of the transference of consciousness to a pure Buddhafield.[4]
中文翻譯 :
  • 拙火瑜伽,為那洛六法的基礎,目的是駕馭能量在體內經脈和脈輪中的運行,主要著重於臍輪
  • 幻身瑜伽,通過觀察鏡中幻影等方法,認識到自身和萬物的如幻不實,主要著重於頂輪
  • 光明瑜伽,結合禪定和睡眠,認識到進入睡眠時出現的母淨光並與之融合。
  • 夢瑜伽,認識白天經驗如夢和夢境的虛幻,控制夢境並在其中修鍊。
  • 中陰瑜伽,目的是在死後的中陰境界能夠悟道和解脫。
  • 遷識瑜伽,打通能量通往頂輪梵穴)的途徑。在死亡的剎那,靈識從此出體而成就。
  • 奪舍瑜伽 ,目的是在死亡後遷識到新近死亡的其他人或動物屍體內,以便繼續修鍊。

Alternate formulations

Other yogas, sometimes grouped with those above, or set as auxiliary practices, include:

  • Drongjuk Phowa - Keown, et al. (2003) list a "seventh yoga" that is a variation of phowa, in which the sādhaka by transference (grong-'jug), may transfer their mindstream into a recently deceased body.[7]This technique may no longer be extant, or is kept secret. The forceful projection of the mindstream into the bodymind of another is a variation that consists of elements of phowaösel and gyulu.
  • Karmamudrā or "action seal" (T: las-kyi phyag-rgya) (erroneously: kāmamudrā or "desire seal") . This is the tantric yoga involving sexual union with a physical partner, either real or visualized.[8] Like all other yogas, it cannot be practiced without the basis of the inner heat yoga, of which karmamudrā is an extension.
  • Self-liberation - Nāropa himself, in the Vajra Verses of the Whispered Tradition, adds the practice of self-liberation in the "wisdom of non-duality" [9] which is the resolved view ofmahāmudrā and dzogchen. But this is always considered as a distinct path.
  • Yantra - There are many practices and physical exercises called yantras, preliminary to the inner heat yoga. A good example of this is the visualization on the body as being hollow: "here the body and the energy channels (nadis) are to be seen as completely transparent and radiant".[10] This essential technique releases tensions and gives suppleness to the prāna channels.

As Nāropa is regarded as a Kagyu lineage holder, the six meditative practices are strongly associated with the Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism. The teachings of Tilopa (988-1069 CE) are the earliest known work on the six yogas. Tilopa is said to have received the teachings directly from Cakrasaṃvara. Nāropa learned the techniques from Tilopa. Nāropa's student Marpa taught the Tibetan Milarepa, renowned for his yogic skills. Milarepa in turn taught Gampopa. Gampopa's student, the future first Karmapa, Düsum Khyenpa, attained enlightenment while practicing the six yogas.[citation needed]

The Karmapa, the first figure in Tibetan Buddhism whose reincarnation was officially recognized, has been strongly associated in certain reincarnations with particular yogic attributes. Many Gelugpa practitioners including Dalai Lamas are expert in the six yogas of Nāropa.

The six yogas of Naropa are ordered and progressive, each subsequent yoga building on previous attainments.

Physical exercises

Before engaging in the actual yogas, one begins by doing the "six exercises of Naropa". Trülkhor (Tibetan 'khrul-'khor)

  • Filling like a Vase — a breathing technique
  • Circling like a Wheel — rolling the solar plexus
  • Hooking like a Hook — snapping the elbow into the chest
  • Showing the Mudrā of Vajra Binding — moving the mudrā from the crown downwards
  • Straightening like an Arrow — hands and knees on the floor with the spine straight; heaving like a dog
  • Shaking the Head and Entire Body — pulling the fingers, followed by massaging the two hands

Meditation on the body as an empty shell

Here the body is envisioned as being entirely without substance, appearing in the mind like a rainbow in the sky. This meditation and the physical exercises should be practiced in conjunction with one another

Stages of meditating upon the actual path

nner heat

(Tib. gtum-mo) Visualizing the channels, Visualizing the mantric syllables and engaging in the vase breathing technique. This gives rise to five signs: like a mirage, like a wisp of smoke, like the flickering of fireflies, like a glowing butter lamp, and like a sky free of clouds.

Four blisses

(Tib. dga'-ba bzhi) Bliss at the throat chakra, supreme bliss at the heart chakra, inexpressible bliss or special bliss at the navel chakra, and innate bliss at the secret place, tip of the jewel. This is accomplished by relying on two conditions; the internal condition of meditating on inner heat yoga and the external condition of relying upon a karmamudrā.

The four types of Karmamudrās

  • Karma Mudrā A maiden possessing the physical attributes of a woman, for dull yogis.
  • Jñāna Mudrā A maiden created through the power of one's visualization, for middling yogis.
  • Mahā Mudrā The images within one's own mind spontaneously arise as various consorts, for sharp yogis.
  • Samaya Mudrā The mudra experienced as a result of accomplishing the former three.

  • These are usually termed the 'four handseals' with only the last one called mahamudra. There are various lists, usually some combination of the following: Action Mudra (Karmamudra), Wisdom Mudra (Jnanamudra), Phenomena Mudra (Dharmamudra), Pledge Mudra (Samayamudra), and Great Mudra (Mahamudra). Action mudra is a woman, phenomena mudra is all appearance, commitment or pledge mudra is tummo, wisdom mudra is the meditation deity, and non-duality is the great mudra.

Pure illusory body

(Tib. dag-pa’i sgyu-lus) Meditations on all appearances as illusory, dream illusions, and bardo experience.

Actual clear light

(Tib. don-gyi ‘od-gsal) The four emptinesses lead to the experience of clear light during the waking period and during sleep. Emptiness, Very Empty, Great Emptiness, and Utter Emptiness. They are associated with external and internal signs of the appearance of mirage, smoke, fireflies, butterlamp, cloudless sky; and whiteness, redness, blackness, and the clear light of early dawn which resembles a mixture of sunlight and moonlight, respectively.

Union of clear light and illusory body

(Tib. zung-'jug) Actualizing the results. The state of a Buddha Vajradhāra.

Transference of consciousness and forceful projection (Tib. phowa grong 'jug)

The branches of that path. [12] There are two ways to practice the transference of consciousness: with a support and without a support.
Separating the body and the mind without a support is achieved through the emptiness of great conceptlessness whereby the mind is not attached to the body and the body is not attached to the mind.
Separating the body and the mind with a support, on the other hand, requires one to imagine the mind as a substance. With awareness one draws the mind up the central channel and then with force expels the mind into the space of the sky.
There are two methods to separate a body and a mind with support: transference in stages, and transference all at once at the time of death.
Transference in stages involves dissolving the sufferings of the six realms into a bindu which ascends the body and travels upwards in the central channel.
Starting under the sole of the feet, each point radiates colored light. Feet: black-hell, joining yellow-hungry-ghosts together at the secret place. At the navel: gray-animals. At the heart: green-human. At the throat: red-demigods, and at the crown: white-gods.
Once the bindu has reached the crown, it has the nature of five colors, corresponding to the last five stages (black is not counted). This bindu then leaves the central channel through the crown and comes to rest inside the heart of a deity that is one cubit above in space.
The mind is rested in equipoise in this state.

Related traditions

The six yogas of Niguma are almost identical to the six yogas of Nāropa but are the version taught by Niguma who was both a teacher and, depending on the sources, either the sister or spiritual consort of Nāropa. The second Dalai LamaGendun Gyatso has compiled a work on these yogas.[13] Niguma [14] transmitted her teachings to yogini Sukhasiddhīand then to Khyungpu Neldjor,[15] the founder of the Shangpa Kagyu lineage. A translator and teacher in the lineage, Lama Sarah Harding, is currently working on a book aboutNiguma and the core role her teachings such as the six yogas of Niguma have played in the development of the Shangpa Kagyu lineage.[16]
In the lineage of Machig Labdron, The practice of Mahamudra Chod begins with The Yoga of the Transference of Consciousness.


  1. Jump up^ The Tibetan term choe or chos is often translated as "dharma" and has a cognate meaning. The term six yogas or six-branch yoga (ṣaḍaṅgayoga) applies more properly to the sixfold stages of the completion stage of Kālacakra tantra.
  2. Jump up^ Dr. Yutang Lin (2006). Six Yogas in Great Harmony[1] (accessed: November 16, 2007)
  3. Jump up^ Roberts, Peter Alan (2011). Mahamudra and Related Instructions. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications. p. 5.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d e f The Art of Dying: Esoteric Instructions on Death and Liberation
  5. Jump up^ Philippe Cornu, Dictionnaire encyclopédique du Bouddhisme. Editions du Seuil, Paris, 2001. 843 p./ p.541.
  6. Jump up^ And also: Readings on The Six Yogas of Naropa. Translated, edited and introduced by Glenn H. Mullin. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca (USA), 1997. 175p./ p.14. This latter is also the main source of the other informations contained herein.
  7. Jump up^ Keown, Damien (ed.) with Hodge, Stephen; Jones, Charles; Tinti, Paola (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Great Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press. P.270. ISBN 0-19-860560-9
  8. Jump up^ The Six Yogas of Naropa: Tsongkhapa's Commentary by Glenn H. Mullin (Editor, Translator) Snow Lion Publications: 2005. ISBN 978-1-55939-234-1 pg 69[2]
  9. Jump up^ Keown, Damien (ed.) with Hodge, Stephen; Jones, Charles; Tinti, Paola (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Great Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press. P.39. ISBN 0-19-860560-9
  10. Jump up^ Keown, Damien (ed.) with Hodge, Stephen; Jones, Charles; Tinti, Paola (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Great Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press. P.58. ISBN 0-19-860560-9
  11. Jump up^ Verses on the Path Technology: A Supplement by Pakmo Drupa (Tib. Thabs lam tshigs bead ma'i lhan thabs)
  12. Jump up^ A Book of Three Inspirations: A Treatise on the Stages of Training in the Profound Path of Naro's Six Dharmas by Tsongkhapa Lobzang Drakpa
  13. Jump up^ 2nd Dalai Lama. Tantric Yogas of Sister Niguma, Snow Lion Publications, 1st ed. U. edition (May 1985), ISBN 0-937938-28-9 (10), ISBN 978-0-937938-28-7 (13)
  14. Jump up^ ni gu ma ( b. 10th cent. )
  15. Jump up^ khyung po rnal 'byor ( b. 978/990 d. 1127 )
  16. Jump up^ Seeking Niguma, Lady of Illusion
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